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H. pylori Risk Factors
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H. pylori Risk Factors


Helicobacter pylori, commonly known as H. pylori, is a bacterium that can reside in the stomach and is often associated with various gastrointestinal problems. Understanding the risk factors for H. pylori infection is crucial in preventing its negative health implications. This article delves into the causes of H. pylori infections and explores the prevalence of this bacterium worldwide.

Causes of H. pylori Infection

H. pylori infections are primarily spread through direct person-to-person contact or through consumption of contaminated food and water. Poor sanitation and lack of hygiene practices contribute to the transmission of the bacterium. In regions with inadequate sanitation facilities, individuals are more prone to H. pylori infections due to the increased likelihood of exposure to contaminated environments.

Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Infection. Figure 1. Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Infection. (Kotilea K, et al.; 2019)

  • Socioeconomic Factors

Low socioeconomic status is often linked to a higher risk of H. pylori infection. Overcrowded living conditions, limited access to clean water, and poor sanitation facilities can facilitate the spread of the bacterium. In developing countries, where these conditions are prevalent, the infection rate tends to be higher.

  • Childhood Environment

Exposure to H. pylori during early childhood can significantly influence the risk of infection later in life. Individuals raised in environments with frequent contact with the bacterium are more likely to become carriers. This is particularly relevant in households where family members are already infected, as the bacterium can be transmitted through close personal contact.

  • Geographic Location

The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies across different regions. Developing countries, particularly those with subpar sanitation and hygiene conditions, often have a higher prevalence of the bacterium. In contrast, developed nations with better living standards tend to have lower infection rates.

  • Hygiene Practices

Practicing good hygiene can play a pivotal role in reducing the risk of H. pylori infection. Simple actions such as washing hands before meals and after using the restroom can significantly minimize the chances of exposure to the bacterium. Teaching and promoting proper hygiene practices are essential in curbing the spread of H. pylori.

  • Contaminated Food and Water

Consumption of contaminated food and water is a major route of H. pylori infection. Consuming undercooked or raw seafood, unpasteurized milk, or water from contaminated sources increases the risk of infection. Individuals should be cautious about the sources of their food and water, especially when traveling to areas with higher infection rates.

Prevalence of H. pylori Worldwide

H. pylori infection is a global health concern, affecting people of all ages and backgrounds. The prevalence of the infection varies widely across different countries and regions.

In developing countries, where sanitation and hygiene conditions are suboptimal, H. pylori infection is more common. Studies have shown that up to 80% of individuals in some developing nations carry the bacterium. This high prevalence is attributed to factors such as overcrowding, limited access to clean water, and lack of proper sewage systems.

On the other hand, developed countries have witnessed a decline in H. pylori prevalence over the years. Improved living conditions, better sanitation, and increased awareness about hygiene practices have contributed to the decrease in infection rates. In some developed nations, the infection rate has dropped to around 20% or lower.


H. pylori infection is influenced by a combination of factors, including socioeconomic conditions, childhood environment, geographic location, hygiene practices, and food/water sources. Understanding these risk factors is essential for implementing effective prevention strategies. Improving sanitation, promoting proper hygiene practices, and raising awareness about the sources of contamination are key steps in reducing the prevalence of H. pylori infections globally. As we continue to prioritize public health, addressing these risk factors can lead to better control of H. pylori-related gastrointestinal issues and improved overall well-being.


  1. Kotilea K, et al.; Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Infection. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019, 1149:17-33.

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